The topic of theliterature under discussion in this literature review is in relation to reflective practice by journalists. I will analyse the positives and negatives discussed in the literature, several theories of methodology including Kolb, Schons and Boud and of reflective practice and also why it is important for journalists to reflect. I selected this literature as it was relevant to the topic and gives several examples of how different authors have approached the subject.
In the New journalists review blog the author (n.d.) outlines the positives of reflective journalism such as it can lead to improvements in and helps develop journalistic professional skills, however the negatives can include that because journalists are different to other professions such as healthcare in the aspect that see no point in reflection as once the work is done for example when a news story is printed they see no need to reflect on the experience but rather move onto the next story.
There are several models of reflection that can be studied such as the Kolb or experiential model. According to Allen & Miller (n.d.) the Kolb model argues that critical reflection is a pre requisite for understanding because knowledge is created through experience. The idea methodology of this model is that Journalism students should return to the experience, attend and examine their feeling from the experience and in turn re-evaluate what has happened, what worked and what didn’t and finally what course of action to be taken next time.
Greenberg (2007) expands on the experiential model and the debate about whether reflective practice is useful for journalists, according to the Kolb methodology it allows for different learning styles and environments to be accommodated and also provides a type of learning that is consistent with human cognition. By adhering to this students can look at past experiences when encountering new problems and look at how they solved them, therefore learning.
Burns (2002) uses an extract from Boud and Walkers model of reflective practice which includes breaking it down into three stages, the preparation stage when the journalists draws upon what they know and assume, the actual activity when they can notice and intervene in the action and affect the outcome and of course the re-evaluation when they analyse what happened and how to approach it next time. Burns also reflects upon Thomas whom says that reflective practice is important as the more self-effacious journalists are about their actions and outcomes learned in by reflecting, the more able they are at writing news that is relevant to public interest.
Smith (2001) discusses Schons theory of reflection in and on action, this brings reflection into the centre of what professionals do. The model is in regards to journalists thinking on their feet which are imperative for them when out in the field and looking to experiences from past reflective practices to put in use whilst working. Again it defines that the act of reflecting is important in evaluating what happened, why it happened and how to do better next time.
In conclusion, it is evident that although all literature discussed several theories of approaching the subject of writing reflective practice is important, it is evident they all have similar ideas as to what the main benefit is to improve upon past experiences and derive knowledge from them to improve future actions in the field.
Admin n.d, New Journalism Review, blog, viewed 20 March 2012, <http://newjournalismreview.com/2007/05/05/reflective-practice-for-journalists/>.
Allen, R & Miller,N N.d., 'Reflective practice in journalism education', The Australian Financial Review, viewed 10 March 2012, <http://web.me.com/rodallen1/Site/nod3.htm>.Burns, LS 2002, Understanding Journalism, Sage, California, viewed 20 March 2012, <https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/welcome/bestpractices/burns.htm>.
Greenberg, S., 2007. Theory and practice in journalism education. Journal of Media Practice, 8(3), p.289-303.
Smith, M. K. (2001, 2011). 'Donald Schön: learning, reflection and change', the encyclopedia of informal education, viewed 10th of march 2012,<www.infed.org/thinkers/et-schon.htm>